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Puerto Rican Citizenship

In 2012, the poverty rate for Latina women overall was 27.9 percent, compared with the rate for non-Hispanic white women at 10.8 percent. Poverty rates for Latina women, at 27.9 percent, are close to triple those of white women, at 10.8 percent. The number of working-poor Latina women is more than double that of white women, at 13.58 percent, compared with 6.69 percent.

Female employment offers these women more autonomy, the chance to support themselves without relying on a spouse. Of the Latinas participating in the labor force, 32.2% work in the service sector, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This percentage is significantly higher than that of white women, who fall at 20%. Conversely, Latinas are underrepresented in various other sectors of the labor force, particularly as business owners.

And it’s the kind of step forward that we need, since current projections show that – if trends to close the Latina wage gap continue – they’ll have to wait 232 years for equal pay. White women are projected to wait 40 more years, and Black women are projected to wait another 108. Something that could help is a minimum wage increase, which would benefit a large amount of Latina workers. The Economic Policy Institute estimates that if the minimum wage were increased to $12 per hour by 2020 – a proposal introduced in Congress that lawmakers ultimately didn’t take up – then more than 35 million workers would receive a raise. The majority of those workers are women, 4.2 million are Latinas, and over 38 percent of Latinos who would benefit are parents.

Instead, addressing outright wage discrimination, occupational segregation, and work-life supports for Hispanic women of all ages is crucial to ensure that Hispanic women and all other women can be fairly remunerated and represented equal to men based on their skills, interests, and ambitions—their human capital. The disaggregation of the white male premium and Hispanic woman penalty detailed in Figure 7 sheds light on the mechanism through which the wage gap changes with rising education. Regardless of their level of education, white men benefit from approximately similar wage premiums—just above 20 percent.

Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays – Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs. In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term Hispanic or Latino when it comes to describing their identity. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as Hispanic or Latino, the Pew study finds that “half (51%) say they have no preference for either term.” A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family’s country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic or Latino.

Spain was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today. The term The Spains referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, and then the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. The ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised what is currently called the Iberian Peninsula, included the contemporary states of Portugal, Spain, and Andorra, and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different indigenous tribes, in addition to Italian colonists.

The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language.

In the 2000 census, 12.5% of the US population reported “Hispanic or Latino” ethnicity and 87.5% reported “Not-Hispanic or Latino” ethnicity. This census acknowledged that “race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.” A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes “Asian Indian”, “Chinese”, “Filipino”, “Korean”, “Japanese”, “Vietnamese”, and “Other Asian”.

Much of these differences are grounded in the presence of occupational segregation. Latina workers are far more likely to be found in certain low-wage professions than white men are (and less common in high-wage professions). But, even in professions with more Latina workers, they still are paid less on average than their white male colleagues.Figure Bshows the average wages of Hispanic women and white non-Hispanic men in the 10 most common occupations for Latinas. In every one of them, white men, on average, are paid more than their Latina counterparts.

In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races, biologically as well as culturally. The Porfirian era , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races not only biologically but culturally as well.

  • Puerto Ricans first arrived in the early part of the 20th century from more affluent families to study at colleges or universities.
  • During this time, the 1990s and early 2000s, the overall migration patterns out from Puerto Rico to the US mainland began to switch and Orlando became the main destination from Puerto Rico by far, replacing New York City.
  • The Puerto Rican population by state, showing the percentage of the state’s population that identifies itself as Puerto Rican relative to the state/territory population as a whole is shown in the following table.
  • Puerto Ricans are largely spread out in the Orlando area, but the heaviest concentration is in the southern portions, like Kissimmee, Poinciana and many other areas in Osceola County, where Puerto Ricans make up the majority of the population.
  • These communities were displaced by the city as part of their slum clearance.

Since 2007, the Government of Puerto Rico has been issuing “Certificates of Puerto Rican Citizenship” to anyone born in Puerto Rico or to anyone born outside of Puerto Rico with at least one parent who was born in Puerto Rico. The Spanish Government recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, “and not American”, citizenship. It also provides Puerto Rican citizens privileges not provided to citizens of several other nations. In 1942, a vote passed on HR 6165 to preserve Puerto Rican nationality. Puerto Rican citizenship is the status of having citizenship of Puerto Rico as a concept distinct from having citizenship of the United States.

In addition, stateside Puerto Rican women had incomes that were 82.3 percent that of white women, while stateside Puerto Rican men had incomes that were only 64.0 percent that of white men. These shifts in the relative sizes of Latino populations have also changed the role of the stateside Puerto Rican community. Thus, many long-established Puerto Rican institutions have had to revise their missions to provide services and advocacy on behalf of non-Puerto Rican Latinos. New York City was the center of the stateside Puerto Rican community for most of the 20th century.

November 20 is Latina Equal Pay Day, the day that marks how long into 2019 a Latina would have to work in order to be paid the same wages her white male counterpart was paid last year. That’s http://dinhduongbabau68.com/a-few-reasoned-explanations-why-you-ought-to-always-work-with-a-brazilian-women/ nearly 11 months longer, meaning that Latina workers had to work all of 2018 and then this far—to November 20! —into 2019 to get paid the same as white non-Hispanic men did in 2018.

Finally, interaction terms were calculated and entered into the equation to assess if substance use frequency moderated relations between cultural and socioeconomic factors and attributions about addiction. Interaction terms were calculated by multiplying predictor and moderator variables. Centering is recommended because predictor and moderator variables generally are highly correlated with the interaction terms created from them.

As with the AMIGAS intervention, we field-tested the general health intervention with Latina women recruited in Miami. We trained 4 Latina health educators from the Miami–Dade County Health Department to deliver AMIGAS.

In Their Own Words: What Does Latinx Mean To Hispanics?

White men expect Latina women to call them “papi” in a sexual context, or use the term “mami” as a sexual compliment, but Latinx use these terms to refer to their parents. The television and movie industry in America is dominated by white men who often portray ethnic minorities from a white point of view. Specifically, Latin American women in the American mainstream media are exoticised and hypersexualized. But while Latina teens have amuch higher rateof teenage pregnancies than their white peers, they don’t have sex more often than their white counterparts. In fact, a2009 studylooking at sexual health factors in teens by race and ethnicity shows that the female rate of teenage intercourse for Latinas and non-Latina whites are identical, with 45% of teen girls from both racial/ethnic groups reporting having had sex.

A group of Latina women is termed “Latinas”, whereas a group of Latino men or a combination of Latino and Latina individuals are designated as “Latinos” (See Latino ). In a 2012 study, most Spanish speakers of Spanish or Latin American descent in the United States did not choose to use the terms “Hispanic” or “Latino” when describing their identity. Over half of those surveyed said they had no preference for either term.

Puerto Rican Citizenship

Specifically, Hispanic women’s total wage gap (40 percent, as calculated with Paul et al.’s specification) is larger than the addition of their gender wage gap with Hispanic men and their ethnic wage gap with white women . Depressed labor force participation and work hours bring down earnings for individual Hispanic women workers and may also contribute to a more precarious and anti-competitive labor market for all workers. A large population of prime-working age laborers outside of the labor force or working fewer hours than desired could give employers greater bargaining power vis-à-vis workers since they have the option to draw from this reserve of workers rather than improve wages, benefits, and working conditions for current employees.

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